Aligning the Financial System with Sustainable Development in the United States of America

Performance Framework: Flows

Many countries, as well as international development finance institutions are beginning to measure and report on actual flows of finance for sustainable development. There are as yet no harmonised standards, but common broad categories are often considered:
  • Green finance funded by, or directly leveraged by public investment
  • Commercial investment into key green sectors and product types
  • Flows of finance covered by environmental due diligence or environmental criteria
  • Value at risk from environmental hazards and associated policy shifts.
Countries that are building systems for measuring actual flows of green finance include Bangladesh, Brazil and China.

Inquiry Publications

  • 3rd Update Report: Pathways to Scale

    Date: 07-Jan-2015

    This is the 3rd Update Report of the UNEP Inquiry, it is focused on the challenge of financing the low-carbon transition. It explores how innovative ideas and practices can be made more effective, adopted more widely, and taken to scale—and as a result move the trillions that are required. Scaling-up proven but limited innovations, is a common

  • On the Role of Central Banks in Enhancing Green Finance

    Date: 20-Feb-2017

    The paper examines the role of central banks in ‘greening’ financial systems. Given the enormous investments needed to bring about a green transformation, the financial sector will have to play a central role in allocating resources towards a sustainable and green economy – and stop financing activities that harm the environment. Against this backdrop, the

  • Towards a Stock-Flow Consistent Ecological Macroeconomics

    Date: 22-Aug-2015

    This paper describes the challenge of modelling combined economic, ecological and financial systems and sets out a series of objectives for modelling the socio-economic transition towards sustainability. It highlights the modelling needs in relation to full employment, financial stability, and social equity under conditions of constrained resource consumption and ecological limits. It outlines the development

  • Indonesia Country Report

    Date: 30-Apr-2015

    Placing Indonesia’s economy onto a green and sustainable development pathway, as envisaged in the National Long Term Development Plan, will require a large mobilization of investment. Estimates of the annual investment needed are in the order of US$300‐530 billion, with a large portion of this investment needed in critical infrastructure, as well as environmentally sensitive

  • Brazil Country Report

    Date: 06-Apr-2015

    As a contribution to the UNEP Inquiry the Brazilian Bankers Federation FEBRABAN established a partnership with the Center for Sustainability Studies at Getulio Vargas Foundation (GVCes) to develop three studies on the practice and potential for green finance in Brazil. The first looks at the legislation, regulation, and public policies aimed at socio-environmental themes related to the financial

  • The Value of Everything

    Date: 15-Dec-2015

    The purpose of this paper is to begin the process of clarifying global asset value especially as may be affected by the sustainability (or lack thereof) of financial systems, and not just that which is represented by institutional assets under management. This paper, therefore, will answer this question of what is the actual total value of

  • Greening the Financial System: Enhancing Competitiveness Through Economic Development

    Date: 16-May-2017

    This briefing summarises the discussions held during a roundtable for market and policy leaders in Washington, D.C. on 20 April 2017. The goal of the event was to explore pathways to scale and speed up green finance and to harness its benefits for long-term sustainable growth and competitiveness. The key messages are: Green finance made

  • Sustainable Infrastructure and Finance

    Date: 13-Jun-2016

    Infrastructure is often referred to as the backbone of the global economy and plays a fundamental role in societies by enhancing the quality of life and increasing productivity. In addition to its effects on society and the economy, infrastructure can have significant impacts on the environment, depending on the choice of infrastructure. Approximately 75% of

  • China Report: A Framework for Green Finance

    Date: 06-Oct-2015

    The existence of externalities has made it hard to quantify the intrinsic value of the “green mountains and blue water” of the natural environment. This has led to a dysfunction in traditional financial markets, which are delivering an insufficient supply of capital for green development and an oversupply of capital for highly polluting activities. As a new financial

  • China Report: Demand for Green Finance

    Date: 06-Oct-2015

    This paper reviews the statistics on investment in fixed assets of key green sectors in China to date and estimates the demand for green finance over the next five years, from 2015 to 2020. It estimates over 3 per cent of GDP—RMB 1,642 billion (USD 260 billion)—was invested into core green industry and infrastructure sectors in 2012.

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