Sustainable Infrastructure and Finance

Performance Framework: Flows

Many countries, as well as international development finance institutions are beginning to measure and report on actual flows of finance for sustainable development. There are as yet no harmonised standards, but common broad categories are often considered:
  • Green finance funded by, or directly leveraged by public investment
  • Commercial investment into key green sectors and product types
  • Flows of finance covered by environmental due diligence or environmental criteria
  • Value at risk from environmental hazards and associated policy shifts.
Countries that are building systems for measuring actual flows of green finance include Bangladesh, Brazil and China.

Inquiry Publications

  • Sustainable Infrastructure and Finance

    Date: 13-Jun-2016

    Infrastructure is often referred to as the backbone of the global economy and plays a fundamental role in societies by enhancing the quality of life and increasing productivity. In addition to its effects on society and the economy, infrastructure can have significant impacts on the environment, depending on the choice of infrastructure. Approximately 75% of

  • On the Role of Central Banks in Enhancing Green Finance

    Date: 20-Feb-2017

    The paper examines the role of central banks in ‘greening’ financial systems. Given the enormous investments needed to bring about a green transformation, the financial sector will have to play a central role in allocating resources towards a sustainable and green economy – and stop financing activities that harm the environment. Against this backdrop, the

  • Financing the Future

    Date: 06-Feb-2017

    Italy’s Ministry of Environment, Land and Sea, in partnership with UN Environment, launched the National Dialogue on Sustainable Finance in February 2016 to identify practical market and policy options to mobilize Italy’s financial system for sustainable development and climate action. The conclusions of the paper are: Italy faces a strategic opportunity to harness its financial

  • Fintech and Sustainable Development – Assessing the Implications

    Date: 14-Dec-2016

    The report, a companion to the second edition of “The Financial System We Need”, assesses how the financial system’s core functions are likely to be disrupted by financial technology (“fintech”) innovations and how they could help – or hinder – efforts to align financing with sustainable development. It considers ways to: Unlock greater financial inclusion by

  • Towards a Stock-Flow Consistent Ecological Macroeconomics

    Date: 22-Aug-2015

    This paper describes the challenge of modelling combined economic, ecological and financial systems and sets out a series of objectives for modelling the socio-economic transition towards sustainability. It highlights the modelling needs in relation to full employment, financial stability, and social equity under conditions of constrained resource consumption and ecological limits. It outlines the development

  • Indonesia Country Report

    Date: 30-Apr-2015

    Placing Indonesia’s economy onto a green and sustainable development pathway, as envisaged in the National Long Term Development Plan, will require a large mobilization of investment. Estimates of the annual investment needed are in the order of US$300‐530 billion, with a large portion of this investment needed in critical infrastructure, as well as environmentally sensitive

  • Brazil Country Report

    Date: 06-Apr-2015

    As a contribution to the UNEP Inquiry the Brazilian Bankers Federation FEBRABAN established a partnership with the Center for Sustainability Studies at Getulio Vargas Foundation (GVCes) to develop three studies on the practice and potential for green finance in Brazil. The first looks at the legislation, regulation, and public policies aimed at socio-environmental themes related to the financial

  • Bangladesh Country Report

    Date: 09-Oct-2015

    Bangladesh has been a leader in developing policies to shape a greener and more inclusive financial system. It has a suite of green banking regulations and policies including concessional green refinancing, credit quotas for green finance and guidance and requirements on environmental due diligence. Green finance is growing but it remains modest compared to the scale of Bangladesh’s

  • China Report

    Date: 06-Oct-2015

    The Inquiry collaborated in an 18-month project, Greening China’s Financial System, carried out by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) and the Finance Research Institute (FRI), Development Research Center (DRC) of the State Council. The aim was to develop specific proposals for greening China’s financial system, based on an analysis of current practice in China

  • Green Finance Progress Report

    Date: 11-Jul-2017

    The G20 Green Finance Synthesis Report adopted at the G20 Leaders Summit in Hangzhou in September 2016 set out seven options identified by the G20 Green Finance Study Group (GFSG) to accelerate the mobilization of green finance. This paper highlights some of the progress made against these seven options in G20 members and internationally since June 2016.

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